Nowadays, calligraphy and paintings in folk collections are only common in the period after Ming and Qing Dynasties. This is because it is difficult to preserve paper and silk for hundreds of years. Coupled with the confusion of counterfeiters, some people think that a considerable part of ancient Chinese characters and paintings are fish eyes mixed with pearls. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the purchase of celebrity calligraphy and painting. The following small series to introduce the acquisition of celebrity calligraphy and painting need to identify the three elements.
1、 Performance identification
Each era has its own characteristics. For example, the palace paintings of the Yuan Dynasty were mounted by a specially assigned person. In the fourth year of Dade, "the ancient jade Ivory was used as the axis, and the Luan magpie wood brocade and Bi Tian Xu as the core.". In Ming Dynasty, the introduction was added to the volume of calligraphy and painting, some of which were written with characters. The vertical axis was divided into wide and narrow sides, and some of which were added with poetry hall. The materials and technical forms of the imperial painting and calligraphy in the Qing Dynasty were better than those in the Ming Dynasty.
2、 Seal identification
宋代字畫作品許多不上印章，部分上蓋銅印與玉印，印色有密印和水櫻元代印章質料有木、象牙、銅、玉等，印色為油印和水櫻元代自王冕始用石料印章。明代石料印章普遍，篆文刻法采用“錘頭式”，使用大多是油櫻清代印章形狀、字體、字形均呈多樣化，印色為油質。 畫中人物衣服與生活用具的鑒別 各個年代冠服往往不同，生活用具也有差別，可以據以鑒別。
Many of the calligraphy and painting works in the Song Dynasty were not stamped with seals. Some of them were stamped with bronze and jade seals. The seals in the Yuan Dynasty were made of wood, ivory, copper and jade. The seals in the Yuan Dynasty were made of oil seal and Shuiying seal. Stone seals were common in the Ming Dynasty, and the "hammer head" style was adopted in seal cutting. Most of the seals were made of oil cherry. The shapes, fonts and glyphs of the seals in the Qing Dynasty were diversified, and the printing color was oily. The identification of the clothes and daily utensils of the figures in the painting is often different in different ages, and the daily utensils are also different, which can be used to identify.
3、 Identification of inscriptions and postscripts
There are three kinds of postscripts: the author's postscripts, the contemporary's postscripts and the posterity's postscripts. The postscript is to increase the value of calligraphy and painting. However, if there are real paintings with fake inscriptions and postscripts or fake paintings with real inscriptions and postscripts, they should be carefully identified. In particular, it is easier for famous artists to be fascinated by inscriptions and postscripts on fake calligraphy and paintings.
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