The identification of paper and silk, calligraphy and painting is made on paper and silk, the life of silk is generally about 100 years, the life of paper is about 1000 years. Of course, due to the different burial environment, the paper and silk in the unearthed cultural relics may still be more than a thousand years old. For example, silk was made of single silk before the Jin and Tang Dynasties. It was not until the Song Dynasty that silk made of double silk was found, which was finer and denser than that in the yuan and Ming Dynasties. The quality of silk can be used to determine the age of calligraphy and painting. Paper, also has traces of the times. Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, paper was made of hemp, so the fiber was relatively low and the paper was not clean enough; after the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the bark was used to make paper, and the paper was more refined than before; after the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty, the raw materials for paper making were diversified, and the paper was also diversified. In fact, the folk collection of calligraphy and painting is only common after the Ming and Qing Dynasties, this is because the paper and silk itself is difficult to survive for hundreds of years. Coupled with the confusion of counterfeiters, some people think that a considerable part of ancient Chinese characters and paintings are fishy eyed. There are three main factors to distinguish famous people's calligraphy and painting
1、 Performance identification:
Each era has its own characteristics. For example, in the Yuan Dynasty, court paintings were mounted by specially assigned persons. In the fourth year of Dade, ancient jade and ivory were used as the axis, and Luan Que and Mu Jin and Bi Tian Xu were used as the core. In the Ming Dynasty, the introduction was added to the calligraphy and painting volume, some of which were written with characters. The vertical axis was divided into wide and narrow sides, and some of which were added to the poetry hall. The materials and technical forms of the imperial painting and calligraphy in the Qing Dynasty were better than those in the Ming Dynasty.
2、 Seal identification:
宋代字畫作品許多不上印章，部分上蓋銅印與玉印，印色有密印和水櫻元代印章質料有木、象牙、銅、玉等，印色為油印和水櫻元代自王冕始用石料印章。明代石料印章普遍，篆文刻法采用“錘頭式”,使用大多是油櫻清代印章形狀、字體、字形均呈多樣化，印色為油質。 畫中人物衣服與生活用具的鑒別 各個年代冠服往往不同，生活用具也有差別，可以據以鑒別。
Many of the calligraphy and painting works in the Song Dynasty were not stamped with seals. Some of them were stamped with bronze and jade seals. The seals in the Yuan Dynasty were made of wood, ivory, copper and jade. The seals in the Yuan Dynasty were made of oil seal and Shuiying seal. Stone seals were common in the Ming Dynasty, and the "hammer head" style was adopted in seal cutting. Most of the seals were made of oil cherry. The shapes, fonts and glyphs of the seals in the Qing Dynasty were diversified, and the printing color was oily. The identification of the clothes and daily utensils of the figures in the painting is often different in different ages, and the daily utensils are also different, which can be used to identify.
3、 Identification of inscriptions and postscripts:
There are three kinds of postscripts: the author's postscripts, the contemporary's postscripts and the posterity's postscripts. The postscript is to increase the value of calligraphy and painting. However, if there are real paintings with fake inscriptions and postscripts or fake paintings with real inscriptions and postscripts, they should be carefully identified. In particular, it is easier for famous artists to be fascinated by inscriptions and postscripts on fake calligraphy and paintings.
Today's calligraphy works can be divided into two types: one is the works of professional calligraphers in the industry; the other is layman, not professional calligraphers, only calligraphy lovers.