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          字畫收購需要辨別的要素!

          發布時間:2021-03-18 作者:大雅堂美術館 文章來源:http://www.cqddsm.com/ 瀏覽量:

          紙、帛的鑒別字畫是作于紙和帛之上的,帛的壽命一般百年左右,紙的壽命約在千年之內。當然,出土文物中的紙帛由于地下埋葬環境的不同,仍可能超越千年。例如絹帛在晉唐之前是單絲織成,直到宋代才發現雙絲織成的絹帛,比元明時期的絹顯得細密。由絹的質量類別可以斷定字畫年代。紙,也有時代痕跡。隋唐之前,紙以麻料作原料,顯得纖維較租,紙張不夠細潔;隋唐之后,樹皮被用來造紙,其紙質比以前精細;北宋中期后,造紙原料多樣化,紙質也呈現多樣化了。實際上,民間收藏的字畫僅以明清以后時期多見,這是因為紙、絹本身難于歷經數百年保存的緣故。再加上造偽者的混淆,所以有人認為古字畫中相當部分是魚目混珠。收購名人字畫主要辨別的三要素:
          The identification of paper and silk, calligraphy and painting is made on paper and silk, the life of silk is generally about 100 years, the life of paper is about 1000 years. Of course, due to the different burial environment, the paper and silk in the unearthed cultural relics may still be more than a thousand years old. For example, silk was made of single silk before the Jin and Tang Dynasties. It was not until the Song Dynasty that silk made of double silk was found, which was finer and denser than that in the yuan and Ming Dynasties. The quality of silk can be used to determine the age of calligraphy and painting. Paper, also has traces of the times. Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, paper was made of hemp, so the fiber was relatively low and the paper was not clean enough; after the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the bark was used to make paper, and the paper was more refined than before; after the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty, the raw materials for paper making were diversified, and the paper was also diversified. In fact, the folk collection of calligraphy and painting is only common after the Ming and Qing Dynasties, this is because the paper and silk itself is difficult to survive for hundreds of years. Coupled with the confusion of counterfeiters, some people think that a considerable part of ancient Chinese characters and paintings are fishy eyed. There are three main factors to distinguish famous people's calligraphy and painting
          一、裝演鑒別:
          1、 Performance identification:
          各個時代裝橫有其特色。如元代宮廷藏畫選擇專人裝裱,大德四年“以古玉象牙為軸,以鸞鵲木錦碧天續為裝核”.明代書畫則在書畫卷增加了引首,有的還被寫上了字,立軸有寬邊、窄邊之分,有的還加了詩堂。清代宮廷書畫的裝核用料和技術形式都勝于明代,顯得更為講究。
          Each era has its own characteristics. For example, in the Yuan Dynasty, court paintings were mounted by specially assigned persons. In the fourth year of Dade, ancient jade and ivory were used as the axis, and Luan Que and Mu Jin and Bi Tian Xu were used as the core. In the Ming Dynasty, the introduction was added to the calligraphy and painting volume, some of which were written with characters. The vertical axis was divided into wide and narrow sides, and some of which were added to the poetry hall. The materials and technical forms of the imperial painting and calligraphy in the Qing Dynasty were better than those in the Ming Dynasty.
                      收購名人字畫
          二、印章鑒別:
          2、 Seal identification:
          宋代字畫作品許多不上印章,部分上蓋銅印與玉印,印色有密印和水櫻元代印章質料有木、象牙、銅、玉等,印色為油印和水櫻元代自王冕始用石料印章。明代石料印章普遍,篆文刻法采用“錘頭式”,使用大多是油櫻清代印章形狀、字體、字形均呈多樣化,印色為油質。 畫中人物衣服與生活用具的鑒別 各個年代冠服往往不同,生活用具也有差別,可以據以鑒別。
          Many of the calligraphy and painting works in the Song Dynasty were not stamped with seals. Some of them were stamped with bronze and jade seals. The seals in the Yuan Dynasty were made of wood, ivory, copper and jade. The seals in the Yuan Dynasty were made of oil seal and Shuiying seal. Stone seals were common in the Ming Dynasty, and the "hammer head" style was adopted in seal cutting. Most of the seals were made of oil cherry. The shapes, fonts and glyphs of the seals in the Qing Dynasty were diversified, and the printing color was oily. The identification of the clothes and daily utensils of the figures in the painting is often different in different ages, and the daily utensils are also different, which can be used to identify.
          三、題跋鑒別:
          3、 Identification of inscriptions and postscripts:
          題跋分三類:作者的題跋,同時代人的題跋,后人的題跋。題跋是為了增加字畫的身價。但是,常見有真畫配假題跋或假畫配真題跋的,應仔細鑒別。特別是名家在假字畫上題跋更容易使入迷。
          There are three kinds of postscripts: the author's postscripts, the contemporary's postscripts and the posterity's postscripts. The postscript is to increase the value of calligraphy and painting. However, if there are real paintings with fake inscriptions and postscripts or fake paintings with real inscriptions and postscripts, they should be carefully identified. In particular, it is easier for famous artists to be fascinated by inscriptions and postscripts on fake calligraphy and paintings.
          現在的書法作品可分兩種,一種是業內,是專業書法家的作品;一種是外行,并不是專業書法家,純粹也只能是書法愛好者而已。
          Today's calligraphy works can be divided into two types: one is the works of professional calligraphers in the industry; the other is layman, not professional calligraphers, only calligraphy lovers.
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